What Are the Parts of a Camera? A Guide to Their Functions

This article guides you through the basic parts of cameras to help you capture excellent photos.

I do not know about you, but I was overwhelmed when I got my first-ever camera. I did not think I could keep track of the countless buttons, switches, and settings. And I wished someone had made a guide on all the parts of a camera to help me understand how they work together.

That is why I wrote this article to guide budding photographers on the 17 essential camera parts. Below, I will discuss the most basic parts and some lesser-known components that apply to all digital camera brands.

Let us dive right into the list!

What Are the Parts of a Camera?

Below, I will discuss the essential parts of a camera in detail. It will help you understand how a digital camera works. 

Camera Body

The camera body contains all the internal components of your camera. It does not include the lens, external flash, or other detachable camera parts.

Camera bodies are available in different shapes, sizes, and weights. They usually vary depending on the brand and purpose.

Cameras without a built-in lens are known as interchangeable-lens cameras. Meanwhile, those with built-in lenses are called fixed lens models.

A digital single-lens reflex camera, or simply DSLR, features an internal mirror that reflects light into the viewfinder (to be discussed later). A mirrorless camera does not need this mirror. Thus, DSLRs tend to have bulkier bodies, while mirrorless units have more compact builds.


The lens refers to the barrel-shaped part extending from your camera body. It comprises glass elements that direct light onto the image sensor (more on this later). Without a lens, the camera cannot capture a photo.

Lenses come in different types to suit different photography genres.

Most entry-level cameras targeted to beginners include a kit lens. This lens type offers an adjustable zoom range. It allows you to get closer or farther away from the subject, which is ideal for most types of photography.

Hobbyists and professional photographers prefer using specialty lenses to capture more creative images. Popular specialty lenses include wide-angle, fisheye, telephoto, and macro. 

Image Sensor

The image sensor is an important part of a camera. It records light and converts it into an optical image that you can save on a memory card.

The sensor is a small rectangle located inside the camera body, directly behind the lens.

It comes in different sizes or resolutions (expressed in megapixels), depending on the type of camera. The larger the sensor, the more information it can record. 

That is why a full-frame camera (with a larger sensor) captures higher-quality images than a crop or micro 4/3 camera sensor. The former also performs better in low-light conditions. 


The aperture is another integral part of a camera. It refers to the opening in front of the lens that lets light into the camera. Thus, it can affect how bright or dark the image you capture is.

The aperture is expressed in f-stops, such as f/1.4 and f/16. A small f-stop number means a larger lens opening. For instance, a lens with f/2.8 allows more light into the sensor than a narrow aperture like f/11. 

Besides brightness or exposure, the aperture also influences the depth of field. It determines how much blur is behind the subject. A large or wide aperture of f/1.4 offers a shallow depth of field. That means only a small part of the frame is in focus, while the rest (usually the background and foreground) are blurred. Meanwhile, a small or narrow aperture keeps most of the image sharp and clear. 


The shutter is a barrier inside the camera to cover the image sensor. It can swing up to expose the sensor beneath and allow light to pass through. The duration for which the shutter stays open will depend on the length of your shutter speed. 

A fast shutter speed, such as 1/500th of a second, creates a short exposure time. That means only a tiny amount of light reaches the image sensor.

In contrast, a short shutter speed, like 1/10th of a second, gives you a long exposure time. It allows more light to enter the camera.

A shutter also comes in different types. The most common are mechanical and electronic shutters, which are present in DSLRs and mirrorless cameras.


The viewfinder refers to the small rectangular opening or eyepiece on top of your camera. It functions like a window that you can look through to see what you are photographing. It allows you to frame your image before capturing it.

There are two types of viewfinders, namely optical and digital or electronic viewfinders.

An optical viewfinder is typical among DSLR cameras. It uses several mirrors to help reflect the scene in front of you. It shows you an accurate image through the lens.

An electronic viewfinder also displays how your photo looks once you take it. But unlike an optical viewfinder, it must convert the light into a digital image first before showing it via the EVF. This conversion can take time, leading to delays and a slightly inaccurate presentation of the final image.

LCD Screen

The LCD screen is usually located on the back of all digital cameras. It can be fixed in place, flipped out, or rotated to allow flexibility in shooting. Some high-end cameras have dual screens, with the second panel on the top side near the shutter button.

The screen displays everything from your recently captured photos and videos to your camera settings. It also allows you to see what you are photographing. In most cases, it replaces the need to use a viewfinder because the screen offers a larger live-view display.

Autofocus System

The autofocus system automatically adjusts the focus point of a camera. It helps you capture photos and videos quickly. 

All digital cameras today have several autofocus points on their sensor. Meanwhile, high-end cameras offer hundreds of autofocus points to obtain focus on different subjects. They are ideal for action, event, and wildlife photographers who often capture fast-moving subjects.

Lens Mount

The lens mount describes the mechanical fitting that allows you to attach a lens to a camera. 

In the past, a lens mount is available in either a screw-threaded type or a breech-lock type. Today, all digital cameras use the bayonet-type lens mount.

A bayonet mount features three to four tabs that secure an interchangeable lens tightly in place. It requires you to align the marked section of a lens (usually a red-colored dot) to the marked area on the camera body. It also involves twisting the lens until it locks into place. The direction in which you turn the lens will depend on the camera brand or manufacturer.

The lens mount of popular camera brands is almost always incompatible. For instance, you cannot use a Sony lens on your Canon camera unless you have a lens mount adapter.

Lens Release Button

The lens release button unlocks the lens mount, so you can detach the lens attached to your camera. It is located in front of the camera on the right of the lens mount for quick access. Simply press this button to dismount the glass.

User Controls and Mode Dials

The user control refers to all the buttons and dials found on your camera. It allows you to configure camera settings, menu settings, and shooting modes.

Each camera offers slightly different user controls. With that said, these selectors are often located in similar areas. For instance, the mode dial comprising shooting modes is at the top of the camera grip. Meanwhile, the menu button is usually at the back of the camera near the display screen.

Shutter Release Button

The shutter release is the button you must press when capturing an image. Once you fully press this button, it releases a signal to open the shutter. The duration of which it stays open depends on your preset shutter speed. 

The shutter release button also has a half-click option. When you press it halfway, it activates the autofocus function to help you focus on the subject.

Battery and Battery Compartment

A battery is what powers a camera. It is available in different types, depending on the camera you use.

Most cameras use a rechargeable lithium-polymer battery. However, some point-and-shoot cameras come with alkaline batteries.

The battery goes inside a dedicated battery compartment. It is usually located at the side or bottom of the camera.

Memory Card Slot and Connections

The memory card is another essential part of a camera. It refers to a storage device that you can use to save photos and videos. 

Most cameras require different memory cards due to several reasons. These include the file size, the camera size, and the medium of your file (photo or video).

A memory card also requires a dedicated slot to receive information or data from your camera. This device is already built into all digital cameras. However, the number of memory card slots depends on the camera. Multiple slots are common in professional cameras to offer backup data.

The memory card slot is usually located along the side of the camera body. It is often near the camera grip.

Built-in Flash

Most digital cameras have a built-in flash on the top of the camera. It pops up and flashes a light when you enable the flash setting.

A flash is handy for low-light situations. However, it casts harsh shadows on your subjects, which makes the photo unflattering.

Hot Shoe

The hot shoe refers to a U-shaped metal bracket on top of the camera. It allows you to connect various camera accessories. These include an external flash unit, an external microphone, light meters, and radio triggers. 

The hot shoe also features small sensors. These can receive signals from your camera to activate the external accessories mounted to this bracket. That is why your external flash will fire when you press the shutter button.

However, these sensors are not compatible with all accessories. The hot shoe mount can vary on the camera brand or manufacturer. 

Tripod Mount

The last camera part on this list is the tripod mount. As its name suggests, it enables you to attach the camera to a tripod. The tripod is an essential photography accessory that can help stabilize your shots. It is ideal for taking long-exposure landscape photos or shooting videos.

Most cameras feature the ¼ 20 UNC thread on the tripod mount. However, some models have the 3/8 16 UNC thread. Check the product manual to know the right tripod thread size before purchasing a tripod.

What Are the Basic Parts of All Cameras?

Learning about all parts of a camera is important to understand what they bring to the table. However, they are not necessary, unlike the fundamentals.

Make sure to know the basic parts that all cameras have, regardless of the brand or manufacturer. These include the camera body, lens, image sensor, aperture, and shutter. Without these integral components, your camera cannot capture photos and videos.


There you have it—the list of the essential parts of a camera. As you may notice, I did not include all the components in a camera. I only discussed the integral elements, so you will not feel overwhelmed by so many terms.

I suggest learning about the basic functions of each camera part and how it interacts with other components. This will help you understand your camera and capture more beautiful photos in the future.

Did you find this guide helpful? Let us know!